Post COP26: Outcomes, implications on Nigeria’s economic sustainability

Achieving Nigeria’s net-zero emissions target to tackle the threat of climate change on livelihood sources such as water, health, forest, and food production remains a fundamental question that must be answered if the nation must keep to its 1.5ºC global temperature commitment.

Minister of State for the Environment, Chief Sharon Ikeazor (middle); the Director of Department of Climate Change (DCC), Dr. Iniobong Abiola-Awe, and other participants during the Post COP26 National Stakeholders Consultative Meeting organised by the Ministry of Environment in Abuja

At the just-concluded 26th Session of the Conference of the Parties (COP26) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in Glasgow, President Muhammadu Buhari presented a national roadmap showing how Nigeria intends to meet up with the Paris Agreement it ratified in 2016. While presenting, perhaps out of his personal desire to urgently protect his country from the anticipated environmental calamity or maybe to merely display showmanship, the President pledged to decarbonise Nigeria’s economy and set to achieve a net-zero target by 2060.

To merge his vow with action, he signed the pending Climate Change Bill into law immediately he returned from the conference where he took the historic oath to give legitimacy to climate change affairs and facilitate the establishment of a council to help accomplish the nation’s goal.

Back home, the President’s statement generated intensive public reactions especially among industry watchers who described it as rather being over-ambitious. They are apprehensive about the implications of trying to achieve the set target and want a careful review of the key sectors where the reduction is expected and come out with a clear adaptation plan showing how Nigerians will cope with the structural adjustments. These demands, they argued, are necessary to help align the president’s promise with the country’s economic prosperity.

Now come to think of it, if truth is to be told, can Nigeria beyond rhetoric achieve a net-zero economy by 2060 as promised by the nation’s leader? Remember that one of his loud calls while in Glasgow was an appeal to the rich countries begging them to fulfill their $1 billion financial commitment to enable poor countries to carry out adaptation projects. It reveals his mind and where he’s expecting to source some of these funds to actualise the nation’s climate target.

Without a doubt, therefore, achieving a net-zero emissions economy in a global climate conversation that is openly characterised by all sorts of international politics and financial insincerity requires deep inward assessment and in-house dressing.

COP26 ended without addressing several vital issues and negotiations were extended by an additional day before a contentious agreement was reached in the form of the Glasgow Pact. Different parties have expressed their displeasure over the Glasgow deal and pointed at how it failed in the delivery of their expectations. Whether you refer to them as less developed or worst still poor as popularly described, these countries are seeking justice to know why they should continue to suffer for a problem that the developed nations are responsible for. And the most annoying aspect of it all is the rat-race technique deployed by these polluters in their resource mobilisation strategy to fix the issue, portraying these affected countries as baggers who are seeking help rather than the polluters paying to correct their ecological devastation.

 “The pledge made by the President and other outcomes of COP26 has significant implications for Nigeria which demands careful reflection and articulation,” said Chief Sharon Ikeazor, the Minister of State for the Environment.

Ikeazor, who made the statement while addressing a group of participants on Thursday, 16th December, 2021 during a national stakeholder consultative meeting that was held in Abuja, told them that her Ministry organised the exercise to bring actors together to brainstorm on the outcomes of Nigeria’s engagements at COP26. It also represents the government’s effort to take stock of the economic implications of the Glasgow agreement and draw a national roadmap for the attainment of future plans.

The announcement of the signing of the new law was received as good news by the nation’s environment boss and believes that a bottom-top method that comprises a whole-of-society integrated approach can help Nigeria achieve its climate change goal. This suggestion is tied to her conviction that it will encourage social inclusion rather than discord in the execution of climate activities if adopted.

Dealing with climate change in Nigeria simply means solving economic challenges, explaining how future diseases in the health sector are going to be handled, providing solutions for clean drinking water, and how to manage the uncontrollable population growth to avoid land struggle as currently experienced in most parts of the country in the form of farmers and herders clashes. Therefore, this meeting, the Minister summarised, is the first attempt to bring the public together to realise that hope and cheer the stakeholders to actively participate in the discussion processes without leaving anyone behind.

Considering the caliber of personalities that attended the event and the focus of their discussions, the gathering can fairly be rated as successful since its objectives and expectations were met. At least the majority of the participants acknowledged the fact that the programme was highly insightful as it opened their minds to the problems and available solutions on how Nigeria can tackle the climate crisis.

Another key achievement of the meeting worthy of note is the rapid need to harmonise the activities of the seven sectors under the NDCs and come up with a common position before COP27 in Egypt next year.  “This is to ensure that we are united in the same voice when presenting at COP27,” says Olumide Idowu, the co-founder of the International Climate Change Development Initiative (ICCDI Africa).

Idowu believes that this harmony will help prepare Nigeria to attract some of the required finances to carry out mitigation and adaptation ventures at COP27 if achieved. Solving this problem, for him, requires a broad stakeholder approach as already observed, and wants the government to establish a database where eco-champions can display and share knowledge on their activities.

Even when you combine all the promises and actions reached in Glasgow, keeping1.5ºC insight can only be achieved if every country delivers on what they have pledged. Shedding more light on this point, the Head of Climate Change and Energy, West Africa, Sean Melbourne, added that these deliveries must include new commitments to enhance their NDCs, which they agreed to revisit prior to COP27.

Melbourne, who was represented by Adesuwa Obasuyi, who is the Climate Change Policy Manager at the British High Commission in Abuja, said the Glasgow Pact achieved the UK Presidency’s aim of keeping  1.5ºC alive and reflects the climax of two years of fervent diplomacy and ambition raising.

The progress made towards delivering the $100 billion climate finance goal by 2023 is another milestone achievement credited to COP26 he feels is worth mentioning, drawing emphasis on the UK’s focus to drive action on mitigation, adaptation, and finance across the globe.

“2022 is the year of implementation and turning pledges into action as we prepare for COP27 in Sharm el-Sheikh in Egypt,” he said.

In conclusion, while the Glasgow Pact presents a solid foundation for enhanced ambition and action going forward, it is imperative to make clear that it does not yet guarantee a 1.5ºC world. No single document can achieve this; therefore, the big polluting nations must commit to working in solidarity with those countries whose very existence is threatened by their activities – and failure is not an option.

Nigeria, France Partner To Strengthen Co-operation On Climate Action

The Federal Government of Nigeria has entered a collaborative agreement with its French counterpart to strengthen their cooperation to promote climate action and the low carbon economic development in Nigeria.

This agreement was reached when the new country director of the French Development Agency (Agence Française de Dévelopment, AFD), Mr. Xavier Muron, paid a courtesy visit to the Minister of State for Environment, Chief Sharon Ikeazor, at her office in Abuja.

Muron said the visit was to discuss AFD strategies and priorities for climate action in Nigeria, in the light of the just-concluded COP26 and the commitment of Nigeria in this regard.

Also, he explained that the meeting was intended to provide an opportunity to discuss the upcoming launch of the Nigeria Deep Decarbonisation Project (DDP Nigeria) scheduled to hold in Abuja in the coming week.

The country director noted that AFD was already funding and collaborating with the ministry on several high-impact projects in the areas of waste management, biodiversity conservation, urban development, power transmission, and off-grid capacity development. Some of these, he said, are already ongoing while some are in the pipeline.

Muron said he was especially excited about the Nigeria Deep Decarbonisation Project which is a national research and capacity-building project for the implementation of a Deep Decarbonization Pathway Programme (DDPP) in Nigeria funded by the AFD, with the International Relation and Sustainable Development Institute (IDDRI) as the programme coordinator.

The project, done in collaboration with the Federal Ministry of Environment under a framework established through a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) between the Federal Government and the AFD signed in December 2020. The key objective of the DPP Nigeria is to mobilise and reinforce the capacities of local teams of experts and researchers in Nigeria to be able to produce country studies analysing decarbonisation scenarios and low-emission development pathways. DDP is being led by the Center of Climate Change and Development at the Alex Ekwueme Federal University Ndufu Alike Ikwo, Ebonyi, with researchers from several universities across the country participating as research fellows.

The national project leader, DDP Nigeria, Prof. Chukwumerije Okereke, who is the director of the centre in the university said he was excited that the DDP Nigeria will build the capacity of Nigeria to develop scenarios, produce robust quantitative models that can help guide Nigeria’s long-term, low emission development.

In her response, Ikeazor thanked the AFD for their visit and for their pipeline of funded projects to help Nigeria tackle climate change and related environmental challenges.

She said the ministry is determined to tackle the myriads of challenges posed by climate change with the support of both national and international cooperation.

The minister said it was evident through the ambitious NDC recently submitted by Nigeria that drastic measures are required in the areas of climate mitigation, as well as efforts to enhance the adaptive capacity of Nigeria to protect the country from the negative impact of climate change.

Ikeazor said the ministry is fully aware of the imperative of energy transition for the country and is already working in close collaboration with other relevant ministries and agencies to facilitate the financing and implementation of the Energy Transition Plan of the government.

The minister noted that while the production of country studies analysing pathways for low-emission development strategies for Nigeria has always been a critical component of the national climate policy, generating context-relevant, long-term climate scenarios and modelling for Nigeria has become even more imperative in the light of the newly submitted NDC and the net-zero carbon pledge made by the president at COP26 in Glasgow.

A statement by the ministry’s director of press, Saghir el Mohammed, said the minister expressed optimism that the analysis that will be done under the NDD project will complement the work done in the Energy Transition Plan so that the country will have a rich menu of options for pursuing her decarbonisation agenda with a clear understanding of the implications the various decarbonisation options and pathways.

Ikeazor said she was looking forward to hosting the participants in the launch to present the DDP project to the larger community of stakeholders to ensure wider project ownership as well as to begin the conversation on the scenarios and modelling options that can help Nigeria achieve her stated long-term climate objectives including the goal of net-zero emission by 2060.

She announced the commitment of Nigeria to achieve the goal of net-zero emission by 2060 and disclosed that a Federal Executive Council memo is being prepared for a sustainable National Energy Transition Plan for the country.

Key features and significance of Nigeria’s new Climate Change Law

On Thursday, November 18, 2021, President Muhammad Buhari signed into law the Climate Change Bill Passed by the National Assembly. In signing the law, the President has made Nigeria join an elite group of countries that have enacted emissions-target legislation aiming to eliminate carbon emissions. This is a big deal for an oil-dependent nation that is also ranked as one of the most vulnerable countries to climate change in the world.

Climate law has grown in leaps and bounds since the Copenhagen Accord in 2009 but so far only a handful of countries has passed national legislations setting CO2 reduction targets. Other countries in this elite group include the United Kingdom, New Zealand, France, Sweden, Ireland, and Scotland which hosted the just concluded COP26 in Glasgow.

The objectives of the new Climate Act

The main objective of the climate law is to provide an overarching legal framework for achieving Nigeria’s long-term climate goals including a net-zero carbon emission target, national climate resilience, an adequate volume of climate finance, and the mainstreaming climate change actions into national development priorities. The bill places climate change action in the broader context of efforts to achieve inclusive green and sustainable economic development for the most populous black country in the world.

Samuel Onuigbo, (sponsored the bill)

Nigeria has long maintained that it wishes to use its climate policies as part of wider measures to achieve low-carbon, resilient, and equitable economic growth. The Act, therefore, seeks to facilitate the intensive and complex cross-ministerial coordination of climate change action as well as the involvement of businesses and the civil society needed to achieve long-term climate objectives while also promoting so climate-resilient social-economic development in the country.

The Act also sets out to establish a systematic approach for the country to identify the major climate risks and vulnerabilities facing the country and how to strengthen existing capacities to adapt to the impacts of climate change.

Key aspects of the Climate Act

Some key aspects of the Nigerian climate law are modeled after those of the UK and Ireland, but the new climate act also has many innovative aspects specially designed to adapt to the unique Nigerian situation.

The law provides that the government shall set five-year carbon budgets in the context of a National Climate Change Action Plan which should be ratified by the Federal Executive Council. The budgets are supposed to advance efforts to achieve net-zero GHG emission reduction between 2050 – 2070. The five-year budget shall be broken down to the annual carbon budget for each of the years that make up the five-year cycle. President Buhari has, at COP26, already committed Nigeria to a net-zero carbon target by 2060.

Prof. Chukwumerije Okereke, headed the committee that revised the bill
Prof. Chukwumerije Okereke, headed the committee that revised the bill

The first carbon budget is to be submitted for approval not later than 12 months from the date that the bill is signed by the President, so now no later than 18th November 2022. Subsequent carbon budgets are to be submitted for approval not later than 12 months to the end of the date of the expiration of the current budget cycle.

While the Federal Ministry of Environment is tasked with setting the carbon budget, the new law provides for a National Council on Climate Change that will oversee the implementation of the National Climate Change Action Plan. The National Climate Council is a major innovation intended in the Act intended to suit the largely bureaucratic nature of governance in Nigeria. Headed by the President who will serve as the Chairman, the Council will supervise the activities and help the Environment Ministry to coordinate the implementation of sectoral targets and guidelines needed to achieve the National Climate Change Action Plan.

The Council shall administer a Climate Change Fund established under the new Act and play a key role in mobilising financial resources to support climate change actions throughout the country. Other members of the Council include the Vice-President of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, who shall be the Vice-Chairman, Ministers in charge of Environment, Budget, National Planning, Power, Transportation, Petroleum Resources, Agriculture and Rural Development, Water Resources, among others.

The Governor of the Central Bank of Nigeria and the National Security Adviser are also members of the Council. This reflects an understanding of the security implications of climate change in Nigeria and the central role that finance will play in facilitating climate action and green transition in the country. It is instructive that the Act seeks to democratize climate governance through the inclusion of representatives of the private sector, youth, women groups, people with disabilities, and civil society organizations in the Council.

The Council will be served by a Secretariat situated at the Presidency that is headed by a Director-General who shall serve as the Secretary to the Council. Secretariat shall advise and assist the Council in the performance of the Council’s functions and duties including the monitoring, verification, and reporting on the extent to which the national emission profile is consistent with the carbon budget. The law provides for regional Director Generals.

The significance of the climate Act

The new climate change law is significant in many ways. It sends a strong positive message to the world that Nigeria understands the enormity and urgency of the climate change challenge and is serious to implement the net-zero carbon pledge made by President Buhari at COP26 in Glasgow.

The high-level body such as the National Council on Climate Change is about the only organ in Nigeria that can be reasonably expected to facilitate the coordination of the various ministries, departments, and agencies whose engagement and active participation would be required to meet the urgent and enormous task of national deep decarbonization required to achieve the ambitious climate target, and steer the country on the path of just green transition to ensure climate-resilient development of the country in the coming decades.

A National Climate Change Council will go a long way in assisting the Federal Ministry of Environment in the goal of setting a national platform for the mobilisation and disbursement of trillions of climate investments needed to scale up and accelerate the green transition efforts in Nigeria in the coming months and years. To succeed in the task of fighting climate change Nigeria will need a large scale of climate finance from both domestic and international sources.

With the implementation of the country’s NDC projected to cost about $177 billion by 2030, only a body as high profile as the National Council on Climate Change can be expected to oversee the task of mobilising such an amount in the context of dwindling oil revenue and a world that is moving away from fossil fuel. President Buhari has in fact put the cost of Nigerian green transition at trillions rather than billions of dollars and he is right!

Now the real work begins…

Nigeria is in a difficult place in terms of climate change. It is extremely vulnerable to climate change. At the same time, it is also very dependent on oil for its foreign exchange earnings and therefore also vulnerable to the transition risks associated with climate change. Hence nothing short of a bold institutional arrangement and action will save Nigeria from climate change. The Climate Act represents such a bold action and if well implemented gives Nigeria a fighting chance.

The signing of the bill into law is very significant but plenty of work is still needed to translate this bold action into concrete policies that will document the emission profiles of the key sectors of the economy, produce credible decarbonisation pathways for the country, strengthen the resilience of the country against climate change impacts and unlock trillions of dollars in climate investment needed to secure the transition.

One must congratulate President Buhari for demonstrating understating of the scale of the challenge and the boldness to sign the climate change into law. Kudo also to Minister of State for the Environment Chief Sharon Ikeazor under whose watch the bill was passed by the national assembly and now signed into law by the President.

It is reasonable to assume that her background as a lawyer, her international outlook, and her selfless approach to governance helped her to appreciate the central role of a legal framework can play in tackling climate change in Nigeria.

By Professor Chukwumerije Okereke and Hon Sam Oniugbo

Hon Samuel Onuigbo sponsored the bill and coordinated the work of the Technical Committee that revised the bill

Professor Chukwumerije Okereke is the Director of the Center of Climate Change and Development Alex Ekwueme Federal University Nigeria and worked as Head of the Technical Committee that revised the Climate Change Bill

CCCD AE-FUNAI Sets To Announce Top 3 Winners Of Climate Art Competition

By Chinedu Nwasum

(Comm. Officer CCCD-AEFUNAI)

The Centre for Climate and Development at Alex Ekwueme Federal University Ndufu Alike Ikwo, Ebonyi State, Nigeria in collaboration with World Resources Institute (WRI), Washington DC has concluded plan to announce the top 3 winners of the climate change and art competition recently organized by the Centre. The art competition titled “Promoting Climate Action through Art” was designed to engage the public to come up with different artistic ways to communicate as well as promote climate action and mitigation and to create massive awareness on the just concluded revision of the Nigeria Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC).

The webinar entitled “Promoting Climate Action through Art” is aimed at having quality discourse on the application of different genres of art such as poetry, drawing, sculptor, written and spoken words as well as short stories in promoting and creating awareness on climate action and mitigation in Nigeria, and also to announce the top 3 winners of the recently organised climate and art competition.

Speaking on the forthcoming webinar, the Director, CCCD AEFUNAI, Professor Chukwumerije says: “I am looking forward to hosting national and international experts to discuss different ways Arts could be used in promoting and creating awareness of climate change and other environmental issues in Nigeria, as well as using arts to engage the Nigerian public. Also, during the event, the top 3 winners of the just concluded competition organized by the centre.

He stated that to mark a hugely successful project intended to provide independent critical analysis and input into the revision process of Nigeria’s Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) as well as increase public awareness of, and stakeholders’ engagement in the revision and subsequent implementation of the revised NDC, the Centre for Climate Change and Development, Alex Ekwueme Federal University, Ndufu-Alike Ikwo, organized an Art competition tagged  ‘PROMOTING CLIMATE ACTION THROUGH ARTS’ aimed at getting Nigerians involved in creativity and analytical intelligence in designing arts in form of poems, monologues, stories, short lyrics and paintings to advocate climate action and promulgation of climate justice in Nigeria.”

According to Professor Okereke, “The high quality of videos and contents submitted by the shortlisted 10 candidates requires wider publicity to national and international audience. This can be best achieved through an event organized to display and celebrate the excellent submissions from the contestants and to announce the top 3 entries to the global audience.  In addition to giving the candidates national and international visibility, the event will serve as a medium for increasing public awareness of climate change and the NDC in line with the original objective of the project. Such an event can also be seen as part of the efforts to raise public awareness of climate change in the run up to COP26.

The webinar which is scheduled  hold on Thursday, 28th October, 2021, will feature Polly Alakija, a British Muralist, Prof. Ameh Dennis Akoh, the Deputy Vice- Chancellor, AE-FUNAI, Yamide Dagnet Director, Climate Negotiations WRI, Prof. Emmanuel Oladipo, of the Department of Geography, University of Lagos, Alison Tickell, the founder of Julie’s Bicycle, and Iquo DianaAbasi, Author of Èfó Rírò and Other Stories as speakers while  Professor Chukwumerije Okereke, Director, CCCD AEFUNAI, is the host and Nneotaobase Egbe of Channels television will moderate the event.

The top 3 winners of the competition go home with N75,000, 50,000 and 25,000 respectively.

It could be recalled that CCCD AE-FUNAI in collaboration with WRI had on June 1st, 2021 launched its second competition entitled ‘Promoting Climate Action through Art’, as part of the ongoing project on “Promoting Public Engagement with Nigeria’s NDC and Climate Action” project. The competition which is titled “Promoting climate action through art” was designed to create further awareness and promote public engagement on the ongoing NDC revision in Nigeria.

Climate finance at COP26: Key Issues for Africa

By Chukwumerije Okereke

  We are now a few days away from the UN’s COP26 in Glasgow where critical decisions that will shape the future of climate governance will be made. As the continent least responsible for, and yet most vulnerable to climate change, African governments cannot afford to be complacent on the need for strong negotiating positions and astute diplomacy in order to get good outcomes from the UN meeting. Of the many negotiation issues that concern Africa, climate finance has to be among the priorities.

We are aware that several months of pressure from climate advocates yielded significant climate finance pledges from world leaders at the recently concluded76th UN General Assembly (UNGA) in New York.  The US President Joe Biden doubled the US Government climate finance pledge from $5.7bn to $11.4bn per year by 2024 and promised “a new era of relentless diplomacy” of using the power of America’s development aid to lift people up around the world.”  Boris Johnson of the United Kingdom touted his country pledge of 11.1 billion pounds made at UNGA last year and indicated that the UK would be open to increasing its climate finance commitment at COP26 in Glasgow next month. On his part, President Xi Jinping of China promised to end coal finance abroad and indicated that China will instead increase its funding of clean energy around the world.

But while these new financial pledges are commendable, it is important that African leaders are not naïve or ignorant about a host of outstanding issues on climate finance in COP26 the outcome of which can either accelerate or hinder the climate-resilient and sustainable development of Africa.  Here are some of the critical ones:

The Issue of Adequacy. For a long time, rich countries have treated the $100billion as a high mark target the fulfilment of which will absolve them of their climate justice responsibilities.  The reality, however is that the $100 billion pledged by rich countries is actually a tiny drop compared to what climate change is costing and will cost developing countries. A study conducted by the UK Department for International Development, now part of Foreign and Commonwealth Development Office indicates that the cost of climate change to Nigeria is about $100 billion by 2020 and $460 billion per year by 2050.  According to official figures, the 2012 flooding event in Nigeria cost the country about $16 billion in direct and indirect damages. The cost of much bigger subsequent events since 2013 have not been calculated. The World Bank calculates that the cost of cyclone Idai which devastated Malawi, Mozambique and Zimbawe in 2019 at $2billion.  These are just a few examples. So, while rich countries are still far away from meeting the $100 billion per year goal even with the new pledges the truth is that the cost of climate change for Africa alone runs into trillions of dollars per year and several times over if one includes the cost of climate change on the rest of the developing countries of the world. So, while the euphoria that greeted the new climate change pledges is understandable, African government must set their sight on getting rich countries that are responsible for climate change to increase their pledges in COP26.  Furthermore, African leaders must press to see a vast increase in adaptation finance which currently constitutes less than 25% of total climate finance. They should urge other countries to emulate Denmark which has pledged to devote equal amount of its climate pledge to climate adaptation and mitigation.

The Issue of Additionality:  In the first major text of United Nations agreement on climate change, signed in 1992, it was agreed that the climate finance which rich countries will provide to Africa and other developing countries around the world should be new and additional to existing Overseas Development Assistance. The reason for this decision was that climate change impact and adaptation measures pose incremental costs on existing burden of development. As such the UN Convention makes climate action in developing countries conditional on the “adequacy and predictability in the flow of funds” from rich to poor countries. However, despite the clarity of the rules rich countries have long been repackaging their traditional ODA money as climate finance. There are several instances where funding that would ordinarily support energy, transportation, education, and agricultural development are now rebranded as climate finance and counted as part of the rich countries steps to meeting their climate finance obligations. This is simply akin to cheating. This is, in fact a travesty especially given that developed countries have for a very long time been failing to meet the 0.7% of the GDP transfer.  It is therefore possible that the whole funding flowing to Africa can actually be far less than they could have received in the absence of climate finance. Current accounting and reporting measures are simply so opaque that it is actually hard for anyone to verify exactly how much rich countries are giving as climate finance.

The Energy Security Issue: Africa is energy impoverished. The total installed electricity capacity in Africa is 147 GW equivalent to what China installs in one or two years. The whole of Nigeria has an installed capacity equal to that of London Heathrow Airport. Africa’s needs to increase its capacity at least 6% per year to stand a chance of meeting universal access by 2050. Unless this gap is closed Africa will remain a dark and poor continent. The question that arises is whether these new promises of climate finance from rich countries will help to fund energy security in Africa especially when they are most likely to come with tough conditionalities including the defunding of coal, oil and gas investments? It is instructive that while many rich countries are pledging to stop investment in gas in Africa, many still retain gas as a part of their long-term energy portfolio. It is also telling that China’s pledge to end coal production does not cover domestic coal which accounts for well over 55% of its domestic energy consumption. African leaders must therefore focus on how to unlock the scale of finance and investment needed to secure energy security for Africa now and the years to come.  Unless there is a radical change, over 40% of African population will stull be cooking with dirty wood fuel, charcoal and animal dung by 2050. Making finance flows consistent with pathway towards low GHG emissions and climate-resilient development is critical to meeting commitment of the Paris Agreement and the developmental needs of Africa.


External and Internal Transparency.  A landscape of loosely defined, fragmented, unpredictable and opaque climate finance will not foster the end of climate insolvency in Africa but could rather imposes new risks on all. Africa must ask for an increase in the overall amount of climate finance but also that a specific percentage be devoted specifically to Africa. At COP26 Africa should ask for greater transparency and accountability to ensure that rich countries are not robbing traditional ODA to pay their climate finance bills. Beyond the COP, African leaders must vigorously reject climate finance conditionalities that seek to compromise the energy security of their countries while at the same time showing demonstratable commitment to embrace renewables as the energy of the future. Africa must also invest its resources to develop capabilities in manufacture and deployment of renewable energy technologies to meet their growing energy demands.  They must know that switching from dependence on the importation of fossil fuel from Europe to dependence on Chinese imported solar panels is not a good definition of sustainable green transition for Africa.

Prof Chukwumerije Okereke is the Director Center for Climate Change and Development, Alex-Ekwueme Federal University Ndufu-Alike, Nigeria


First published in Premium Times on 12 October 2021